News

The Medium Combustion Plant Directive (MCPD) is on it's way and will be transposed into UK law by December 2017

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Brewery rebels as Fulton’s thermal fluid installation is one of only a handful in the UK

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Fulton announces the most radical change to boiler design in nearly 70 years

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Fulton fleet investment reinforces aftercare team

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Byworth Boilers win Queens Award

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BOAS Handbook V6

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Cochran - Case Studies

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Boiler Operation & Safety Awareness Hotel Seminars

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SAACKE Programme of Regional Conferences

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The Use of Biomass - General Paper

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Brexit and The Machinery Directive - 'Game of Change'

Warren Spiers, Managing Director at Spiers Engineering Safety, looks at the possible changes that may come, following our exit from the EU.

Synopsis: 

The machine safety industry should be watching the Brexit process with baited breath. Nobody truly knows what the outcome will be. In fact, all we know is that our relationship with the EU will never be the same again and in this 'game of change' nobody knows the outcomes for sure. The purpose of this article is to explore the changes that could occur to the Machinery Directive and the machinery safety industry. 

As a professional in machine safety and as a machine safety consultancy business owner responsible for the livelihood not just of my own family, but also of the families of our employees, I am keenly focussed on what contingencies I might want to put in place to protect us all from the effects of the Brexit process.

To read the full article click here.

Warren Spiers will be delivering a one-day machine safety workshop at Cannock on Tuesday 21st March 2017. 

To view all of Spiers  Engineering Safety conferences and workshops for 2017 please click here.

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The Medium Combustion Plant Directive (MCPD) is on it's way and will be transposed into UK law by December 2017

If your company runs any combustion plant from 1MW thermal Input up to 50 MWth you will fall into the MCPD. The emission limits have already been set for the European Union and a number of staging dates set for the various sizes and types of industrial plant. 

Having seen on the news the smog in certain Chinease cities, reminisent of 1950's London smogs here is some information that may indicate the direction of travel in terms of NOx reduction globally. 

The CEA are running an MCPD Awareness Seminar on Thursday 14th July 2016 at the Cambridge Belfry - Click here for details

SAACKE LONOX UCC System already complies with future Chinese emission limits

Nitrogen oxide emissions < 30 mg/m³ based on 3.0% dry O2 certified by the German TÜV

From 2017, particularly strict emission guidelines will apply in selected urban areas in China, such as Beijing. New heat generation plants and power stations will then be subject to a NOx limit value of a maximum of 30 mg/m³ based on 3.0% dry O2, while the regulation enters into force in five years for existing plants. The optimized SAACKE LONOX UCC (Ultra Clean Combustion) System, based on burner technology that has proven its worth over decades, already complies with the future guideline values in all areas – without expensive additives or secondary measures. This was verified by the German TÜV (Technical Inspection Authority) in January 2016, based on measurements at a test facility at the SAACKE research and development location in Bremen.

The new statutory regulations are the Chinese government’s response to rising air pollution and smog formation, especially in urban areas. These are the result of released nitrogen oxides, which are unwanted by-products of combustion processes that use high temperatures in many sectors of industry or are also released by motor vehicles in traffic. “We want to use our technology to contribute to a better climate and better living circumstances for the inhabitants”, says Dr. Norbert Schopf, Director Business Development at SAACKE. “The guidelines for new plants may only enter into force from 2017, but they also affect power stations that supply heat. The goal is to be able to commission the first SAACKE Low NOx burners at the start of the 2016/2017 heating period.” Plants that are already in operation can also be fitted with the technology, so that they can continue to be used.

 

 saacke.jpg

 

Cost-effective and efficient compliance with limit values

The reduction of nitrogen oxides in industrial processes is generally achieved by cooling the flame temperature in the burner, such as by installing cooling fins or water injection. NOx reduction measures of many SAACKE competitors often lead to a high amount of excess O2 or a high level of CO. Significant reductions in the released nitrogen oxide can often only be achieved using expensive, catalytic (SCR) or non-catalytic (SNCR) processes. However, all of these options increase fuel consumption, material costs and the use of necessary additives at the operator’s expense. By contrast, the SAACKE LONOX UCC System is based on an internally developed technology, whose core elements are a swirled and particularly stable spherical flame as well as a specially-engineered flame control. “This function has proven itself in practice over many years and has undergone constant optimization”, explains Dr. Norbert Schopf. The SAACKE burner fires all gaseous fuels cost-effectively and efficiently in compliance with the limit values of 30 mg/m³ NOx based on 3.0% dry O2 – with a low flue gas recirculation rate of < 30%. Specifically, measurements by the TÜV Nord, under low, partial and full load, resulted in NOx values (averaged over half an hour) of < 19 mg/m³ at an output of 1 MW, < 28 mg/m³ at 4 MW and < 24 mg/m³ at 8 MW. The CO value is below 100 mg/m³. The SAACKE LONOX UCC System does not require any external measures for NOx or CO, and has a capacity range of 8 to 64 MW, making it suitable for plants with shell boilers or water-tube boilers with capacity ranges between 10 and 80 tons per hour. The burner solution is also ideal for extremely short furnaces due to the special flame geometry.

The SAACKE LONOX UCC System can be customized to customer requirements and the local infrastructure. Besides the test plant at the research and development location in Bremen, a 32 MW demonstration plant is also in planning at SAACKE's Chinese site in Qingdao.

 

 

News: 2016/05

Managing Director: Malcolm J. Cook

SAACKE Combustion Services Ltd. │Registered in England No. 7184556 │VAT Number is GB 989  1797 35

 

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Brewery rebels as Fulton’s thermal fluid installation is one of only a handful in the UK

Steam is often seen as a traditional source of indirect heat for brewing and distilling processes but, with the recent explosion in micro-breweries and resurgence in craft brewing, the regulations and additional ongoing investment required for running a pressure-based system often adds too much cost when considering steam as a heat transfer solution. So when Rebellion Beer Company was looking to replace its ageing steam boiler system, they turned to two of the UK’s major thermal fluid specialists for help.

Established in 1993 by two school friends from Marlow, Rebellion Beer Company is a medium-sized micro-brewery that uses traditional brewing methods and natural ingredients to produce four million pints of beer from its Chiltern Hills-based brewery every year.

Having secured a new 20-year lease on its premises, and as part of a three-stage development plan for the business, Rebellion’s Mark Gloyens decided that an upgrade to some of the company’s original brewing equipment was required and, with its steam boiler reaching the end of its operational life, he started looking at options for new heat transfer equipment.

“This was the first time we had approached thermal fluid system specialists for a project of this sort and, having met with two of the UK’s main suppliers to discuss the project, we were impressed with Fulton’s enthusiasm and interest in getting involved with what turns out to be one of only a handful of brewery-based thermal fluid heat transfer projects in the UK.” says Mark.

Explaining the potential energy savings, Mark says that Fulton’s new FT-C 240 vertical coil thermal system should save money on the company’s energy bills as it is possible to easily turn the heater on and off as required, and with minimal heat-up time. In contrast, the old steam-based system needed to be turned on at the beginning of the day and left running regardless of the demand for steam.

The new system also provided value-for-money, as thermal fluid heaters are non-pressurised systems and therefore not subject to the costs of running a system under the pressure regulations. For example, thermal fluid heaters use specialist oils as heat carriers and operate, at atmospheric pressures, up to 300°C. To gain a similar operating temperature from traditional water- or steam-based systems would require a pressure of 85 bar. And while Rebellion Beer Company prefers to operate its thermal system at lower temperatures of around 135°C to ensure a quality product, for many processes where high process temperatures are required, thermal fluid heaters are an ideal source of heat.

For Rebellion, the system is also much simpler than a steam solution and was therefore less expensive to set-up and maintain. Additionally, Fulton’s FT-C thermal fluid system is more compact than the original steam-based system, which has freed up much needed space for other valuable process equipment.

Commenting for Fulton, Doug Howarth explains that unlike steam, thermal systems provide useable temperature with very little pressure and a variety of cost savings should therefore be expected. The additional control provided by thermal systems also allows multiple, easy and accurate temperatures throughout a single system that can also include cooling. There are also no freezing hazards, they provide rapid start up and shutdown with minimal heat losses and there’s no requirement for blow down or condensate losses.

“The whole life costs for thermal systems can also be cheaper because they require fewer insurance inspections, which minimises production downtime and shut down periods. There’s also no requirement for water treatment or chemical dosing, which leads to zero waste disposal and minimal maintenance costs.” says Doug.

Fulton’s thermal fluid heat transfer solution is now used throughout Rebellion’s brewing process. From the brewhouse, where liquor (water) is heated to 66 degrees for the mashing-in process and wort is boiled with hops for 90 minutes; to heating the brewhouse and fermentation tank CIP system.

Fulton’s highly-efficient FT-C thermal fluid boiler offers a compact, fuel-fired, 4-pass heater design capable of operating at temperatures up to 345°C. The system is designed to provide high-fluid velocities and low-film temperatures for improved longevity. The system’s compact footprint also means it could be skid-mounted, accommodating ancillaries such as circulating pump, expansion tank and related pipework, to minimise the floor space required for installation.

Summarising, Doug Howarth says that whilst the company is known as a reliable source of multi-fuel-fired steam boilers, Fulton is also synonymous with heat transfer solutions and produces an unrivalled range of thermal oil and hot water solutions. And because Fulton offers a complete range, they are well placed to offer customers an unbiased review of their heat transfer requirements.

For further information on its thermal fluid systems, including the FT-C vertical coil, FT-N vertical electric and FT-HC horizontal coil heaters, call Fulton on 0117 972 3322, email sales@fulton.co.uk or visit Fulton’s new-look website at www.fulton.co.uk.

Ends

Editors Notes
With manufacturing facilities in the United States, Great Britain and China, Fulton is a global manufacturer of steam, hydronic and thermal fluid heat transfer systems. Backed by over 60 years of research, innovation and experience, Fulton is building on a tradition of success and is focused on improving life through heat transfer solutions. For additional information about Fulton, please visit www.fulton.co.uk.

For further information contact Doug Howarth
Fulton Limited, Fernhurst Road, Bristol, BS5 7FG
Tel: 0117 972 3322 Fax: 0117 972 3358
E-mail: doug.howarth@fulton.co.uk Web: www.fulton.co.uk

For press information contact Simon Cantillion,
Cantillion King Advertising, 16 The Cornhill, Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 2JT
Tel: 01453 755551 Fax: 01453 751525
E-mail: simon@cka.co.uk Web: www.cka.co.uk

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Fulton announces the most radical change to boiler design in nearly 70 years

Tuesday, 23 February 2016:

In the year that sees the company celebrate 50 years of UK manufacturing, Fulton is also launching its latest heat transfer solution, claiming that the all-new, next-generation SRT Series is the most radical change to vertical steam boiler design for nearly 70 years.

Commenting for Fulton, sales and marketing manager Doug Howarth says: “This will be quite a year for Fulton. Not only are we celebrating 50 years of manufacturing in the UK, but we’re also launching a great new heat transfer solution that we believe to be the most radical change in steam boiler design since we pioneered the vertical tubeless boiler in 1949!”

By adopting a systems engineering approach to design and using its own ‘PURE’ technology, Fulton’s SRT Series challenges the heat transfer and mechanical design principles of traditional vertical steam boilers.

With over 30 worldwide patents pending, the new vertical boiler’s spiral-rib tubeless design is a world first that has enabled Fulton to create a compact boiler with the industry’s smallest footprint. In fact, compared to the equivalent 30hp model from the company’s renowned J Series, the SRT Series is an impressive 40% smaller.

Using a combination of in-house modelling with computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis, the ‘PURE Optimised’ design of the SRT Series makes the new boiler durable and reliable in operation; and with up to 6:1 turndown and featuring a fully-modulating burner, the SRT also boasts industry-leading performance with an 84.5% Gross (93.5% Net) thermal efficiency and 99.5% steam quality from a fully-water-backed design with no refractory.

The SRT Series features patented, self-compensating stress relief architecture that virtually removes longitudinal stress and deflection absorption. And, to comply with anticipated EU regulations, the boiler’s combustion technology has also been completely reconfigured, with the mesh burner and furnace designed as a single component, resulting in ultra-low NOx emissions of less than 40mg/kWh.

Fulton has further reason to celebrate, as 2016 sees the company celebrate 50 years of UK manufacturing, with the Bristol-based facility now an important design and manufacturing base in Fulton’s global network, which includes production facilities in the USA and China.

As Doug Howarth explains, Fulton concentrated on steam boiler manufacturer for many years, but the company is now a major solutions-based provider specialising in fully-packaged, ready-to-ship steam, hot water and thermal fluid heat transfer systems.

“We put great emphasis on providing sales and application advice and a full commissioning and after sales service, to a growing customer base in numerous sectors including food processing, brewing and distilling, etc.” says Doug.

For further information on the SRT Series, call Fulton on 0117 972 3322, email sales@fulton.co.uk or visit Fulton’s new-look website at www.fulton.co.uk.

Ends

Editors Notes
With manufacturing facilities in the United States, Great Britain and China, Fulton is a global manufacturer of steam, hydronic and thermal fluid heat transfer systems. Backed by over 60 years of research, innovation and experience, Fulton is building on a tradition of success and is focused on improving life through heat transfer solutions. For additional information about Fulton, please visit www.fulton.co.uk.

For further information contact Doug Howarth
Fulton Limited, Fernhurst Road, Bristol, BS5 7FG
Tel: 0117 972 3322 Fax: 0117 972 3358
E-mail: doug.howarth@fulton.co.uk Web: www.fulton.co.uk

For press information contact Simon Cantillion,
Cantillion King Advertising, 16 The Cornhill, Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 2JT
Tel: 01453 755551 Fax: 01453 751525
E-mail: simon@cka.co.uk Web: www.cka

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Fulton fleet investment reinforces aftercare team

With the company already launching a new, radically-designed vertical steam boiler and celebrating 50 years of manufacturing in the UK in 2016, Fulton could be forgiven for concentrating its efforts on these two major events. But, as sales and marketing manager Doug Howarth explains, following an extensive review of its existing aftercare fleet, Fulton has secured eight new commercial vehicles, enabling the company to provide a more flexible approach when it comes to managing resources and reinforcing its reputation as a world class aftercare provider.

“The new fleet has the potential to provide substantial benefits for Fulton’s customers. Six new VW Caddy Maxi service vehicles means the aftercare teams are now able to follow optimum timetables and provide a rapid response to emergency needs, which in turn reduces downtime by getting equipment back in service.” says Doug.

Additionally, the aftercare team has also taken delivery of two new long-wheel-base VW Transporters, which enables small boilers and energy-saving products including modulating burners, TDS energy recovery systems and economisers, to be delivered to site and installed or retrofitted on the same day.

The eight new vehicles will also enable on-board stock holding to increase, which will in turn increase the already high first-time-fix ratio that Fulton is acknowledge for.

Additional investment in in-house software and field-service tablet devices has also streamlined workloads and provided an improved monitoring system of Fulton’s network of highly-skilled engineers. Integrated GPS tracking of the vehicles also means Fulton can identify the location of its vehicles, which has improved call-outs by cutting the time it takes for its engineers to reach customers in need of emergency appointments.

For further information on Fulton’s service packages, call +44 (0)117 972 3322, email service@fulton.co.uk or visit www.fulton.co.uk.

 

FBW_125_ServiceVansInvestment_Web2.jpg.jpg

 

Editors Notes

With manufacturing facilities in the United States, Great Britain and China, Fulton is a global manufacturer of steam, hydronic and thermal fluid heat transfer systems. Backed by over 60 years of research, innovation and experience, Fulton is building on a tradition of success and is focused on improving life through heat transfer solutions. For additional information about Fulton, please visit www.fulton.co.uk.

 

For further information contact Doug Howarth

Fulton Limited, Fernhurst Road, Bristol, BS5 7FG

Tel: 0117 972 3322 Fax: 0117 972 3358

E-mail: doug.howarth@fulton.co.uk Web: www.fulton.co.uk

 

For press information contact Simon Cantillion,

Cantillion King Advertising, 16 The Cornhill, Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 2JT

Tel: 01453 755551 Fax: 01453 751525

E-mail: simon@cka.co.uk Web: www.cka.co.uk

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Byworth Boilers win Queens Award

Byworth Receives a Queen’s Award for Enterprise

Byworth Boilers is proud to have been named a winner of the Queen’s Award for Enterprise in Innovation.

The UK’s highest accolade for business success, the award was received in recognition of Unity, Byworth’s revolutionary boiler house control system. The first of its kind on the market, Unity has achieved outstanding results in its respective field of innovation.

The prestigious awards are made annually by HM The Queen, and are only given for the highest levels of excellence demonstrated in each category. They are judged following a rigorous and highly competitive entry process.

Rewriting the rules

Byworth were seeking an innovative product to solve the problem in the market. Unity was first touted as an idea in 2007 to the existing controls’ manufacturers; but after years of getting nowhere trying to persuade them to take on the development, Byworth felt so strongly that the industry was missing the key technological advancement, it appointed its own team to develop the idea into the finished product. After a two-year development plan, Unity was born.

Encourage and nurture innovation

Numerous departments at Byworth have had and continue to have a role in its development, contributing to its success. Unity as a physical entity is not merely enough, without the pioneering capabilities from the people ‘on the ground’ it would not sustain its competitive edge.

How has Unity changed the industry?

The innovative product controls and manages a boiler house as one entity rather than relying on various third party control systems; creating a considerably more efficient and configurable boiler house for the customer.

Data is accessible from the cloud; enabling plant managers to optimise the relationship between boiler and process by understanding when large peaks and troughs are happening.

The intelligent use of data allows site managers and operators to react more quickly to plant conditions, reducing the number of start-stop cycles, fuel and water usage.

Essentially, having better control makes the customers' plant safer and more efficient, as well as reducing emissions. 

 

Jura, in a world of it's own - Find out more about Byworths journey to this famous distilllery

Discover what the Yorkshireman Steam Boiler can do for your business with Byworth Boilers


http://byworth.co.uk/latest-news/byworth-receives-a-queens-award-for-enterprise-2/

 


http://www.thetelegraphandargus.co.uk/business/14442195.Byworth_Boilers

_get_royal_innovation_award_for_its_Unity_control_system/

 

 

 

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BOAS Handbook V6

BOAS_Handbook_-_Version_6_rev7_160401.pdf

We have made a few amendments to the BOAS Handbook over recent months.

Devised in consultation with the Health & Safety Executive (HSE), the insurance industry, manufacturers of boilers, burners and associated equipment, and employers, with the practical support of The Carbon Trust.

The CEA has devised a scheme recognised by industry, insurers and HSE, which provides a comprehensive qualification for operators and managers of industrial and commercial boiler plant.

Since the demise of the former City & Guilds boiler operative qualification, there has been no nationally-recognised qualification. The CEA seeks to fill that gap.

The syllabus has been devised in consultation with HSE, the insurers, trainers and employers. It is based on the former City & Guilds syllabus, but updated and expanded to include, not only safe operation, but energy efficiency, environmental control, and the latest developments in automatic and remote control.

The qualification can be obtained in two alternative ways:

  1. By attendance on an approved training course.
  2. By application for assessment for those who can demonstrate 
    sufficient experience.

In cases where a candidate attends an approved training course, the assessment will be carried out within the course. Where the experienced candidate just applies for assessment, he will be required to attend a one-day assessment course, which will include oral and written processes.

In all cases the candidates will be issued with log books where they will be required to record all working operations of the boiler plant under their control over a period of three months, at which time an ‘on site’ interview will be conducted.

The qualification is available in various categories as follows:

  1. Hot water boilers
  2. Steam boilers without steam raising in tubes (
  3. Steam boilers with steam raising in tubes (

Assessment at the higher category does not offer a presumption of competence at a lower category.

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Cochran - Case Studies

Foresterhill
The Central Campus Energy Solution

Turnkey Case Study (read here)

Having previously supplied Aberdeen Royal Infirmary with steam boilers back in the 1986, Cochran were contracted to provide the main steam generation equipment for the new Foresterhill Health Campus Energy Centre. Commissioned in June, the plant was operational by August 2012.

 

BillerudKornas
Increasing Efficiency and Reducing Fuel Costs

Efficiency Case Study (read here)

BillerudKornas Beetham at Milnthorpe in Cumbria is a world leader in the manufacture of speciality papers for healthcare and food packaging markets. Recently BillerudKornas made the decision to replace their existing 40-year-old boilers in order to reduce the fuel and maintenance costs.

 

Evolve Polymers
Recycling Waste Heat into Valuable Energy

Heat Recovery Case Study (read here)

Cochran recently installed a Heat Recovery Boiler system for Evolve Polymers at Hemswell in Lincolnshire. The project which made use of exhaust heat from two gas engines was completed in association weith leading generator hire company, Aggreko. 

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Boiler Operation & Safety Awareness Hotel Seminars

Cochran Ltd is pleased to announce the popular 1 day Boiler Operation and Safety Awareness hotel seminar at various locations throughout 2016.

Supported by the CEA the seminar has been designed for personnel responsible for attending to Boiler Plants on a regular or intermittent basis such as Plant Managers, Security Guards and Shift Operatives.  It also benefits personnel responsible for matters relating to Health and Safety and indeed anyone requiring a comprehensive overview of the efficient operation of the Boiler Plant.

 Date

Venue

Tuesday 7th June 2016

Mercure Burton Upon Trent Newton Park Hotel

Newton Solney

Staffordshire

DE15 0SS

Tuesday 16th August 2016

Mercure Livingston

Almond View

Livingston

EH54 6QB

Tuesday 4th October 2016

Mercure Wetherby

Leeds Road

Wetherby

LS22 5HE

 

The seminar designed to provide a basic understanding of the everyday operation of boiler and burner plants.  The seminar consists of a series of illustrated talks and demonstrations, with course members being encouraged to question and actively participate.

The seminar costs £375.00 plus VAT, per person, and includes all course literature, morning coffee, buffet lunch and afternoon tea and Certificate of Attendance and it covers the following topics: 

  • Boiler Fittings
  • Combustion and the use of Various Boiler Fuels
  •  Boiler Construction
  • Essential Routines, Daily and Weekly Checks
  • Basic Water Treatment
  • Boiler House Health and Safety
  • Actions in Emergencies
  • Question and answer session

 

To book call Cochran Training Department on 01461 202111.  Further information on Cochran training courses are available at https://cochran.co.uk/training.aspx

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SAACKE Programme of Regional Conferences

The CEA are happy to support its members, SAACKE Combustion Services, Enersol Flomar - M&M training and Torque Engineering who are hosting this Energy, Emissions and Efficiency Conference, along with SSE Enterprise looking at Micro CHP. 

Below is the SAACKE 2016 conference programme, please book directly with SAACKE using the flyer booking form or contacting via www.ukcombustionseminar.co.uk

This conference will also give you a flavour of the more detailed CEA two day conference workshops to be held at Crewe Hall, Cheshire 14 - 16th June and the Cambridge Belfry Hotel, Cambridge 12 - 14th July, covering in more depth your legal obligations when operating combustion plant and carrying out Technical Boilerhouse Risk Assessment.

For more information please contact info@cea.org.uk or see our events page.

The CEA have organised a third day at each venue, Crewe Hall and the Cambridge Belfry with topics covered:

  • Crewe Hall - a mix of MCPD updates, Industrial Gas Accreditation (I-GAS) and boiler water treatment (BG04). 
  • Cambridge Belfry hotel - Biomass Health & Safety Awareness after recent boiler explosions. It is designed for Owners, Installers, Operators and Managers of biomass systems. 

See SAACKE Programme of Regional Conferences Here

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The Use of Biomass - General Paper

 

Element.jpg

A Summary Paper - COSHH Hazards arising with the storage of wood fuel

Author: A J Nicol BSc CEng MEI

Introduction

It is appropriate to note that the comminution of aged timber will produce dust of all sizes including tiny particulate regardless of fuel specification. That dust will contain or have attached any of the residues of any chemical treatments etc and will because of its size remain airborne for long periods, post shredding and movement. Inhalation will present a COSHH risk (particularly with organo-chlorides) and will, very likely, with accumulation present an explosion risk. The risk of explosion will be most acute with enclosure e.g. above conveyors that are enclosed (reference the OSB investigation into the Imperial sugar explosion). Where wood is treated or where wood is wet and rotting wood is stored there is also the inherent risk of fungal growth and the attendant COSHH risk.

The use of Biomass has increased significantly over the last ten years. This increase is in large part due to a perception that biomass is green, clean and sustainable. These conceptions are in part driven by market pressure and in part underwritten with Government commercial interventions. The rapid development and deployment of biomass has alarmingly resulted in the un-informed design, review, installation and operation of allied storage and combustion technologies (with attendant fatality and injury)

Read the full paper here

Summary

The research and information and in particular the  formulation and execution of large scale trials for CO production from wood chip is very limited. There is sufficient evidence to show that large scale storage of any organic material but in particular soft wood lumber or chip will produce CO and generate and oxygen depleted high CO2 atmosphere. Where headspace ratio is small that will result in unacceptable CO levels.

Entry to a space storing large quantities of organic materials requires special and sensible consideration and precaution.

My consideration is based on this very limited data and analysis available for fresh wood chip. In the context of auto oxidative CO formation at least this will provide some safety margin because there is research available which suggests that the fatty content of wood reduces with age and accordingly the propensity to generate CO reduces.

Keeping the wood very dry will hamper biological degradations with attendant, CO, Methane and CO2 production, and for that reason ahigh fuel turnover and no dead spaces are preferable.

Ventilation must assure mixing or else stratification or binding may occur, creating pockets or layers of high CO concentration.

The detection systems must at least detect at the level where any human operator might be. Additional low and high level alarms might be used to provided a robust alarm system and warning of over pile CO build up and stratification.

Operational and maintenance activity that requires entry to a large store will merit special precaution. e.g. a risk assessed entry, COSHH test, extraction and evacuation procedures (written and tested) - and published emergency procedures to mitigate the effects of any Hazard being realised e.g. initial healthcare procedures for persons suspected of carbon monoxide poisoning or Oxygen deficiency.

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Request for Membership Details

Membership is available in several categories. Please fill in the form below and full details of membership and costs will be forwarded to you.